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Friday, December 10, 2021

B.A. /B.Sc. (General) 4th Semester
English Elective

Time Allowed: Three Hours] [Maximum Marks: 90

Note :-(1) Attempt ALL questions.

(2) Attempt all parts of the question together. 

(3) Write legibly.


1. Write short notes on any five of the following literary terms: 

(i) Allegory 

(ii) Allusion 

(iii) Epithet 

(iv) Antithesis 

(v) Personification 

(vi) Hyperbole 

(vii) Metaphor 

(vii) Spenserian Stanza. 5x3=15

2. Answer any five of the folowing questions in about 40-60 words each :

(i) Why is the sun considered 'unruly' by the poet in the poem "The Sunne Rising'? 

(ii) What, according to Pope, is the duty of man ?

(iii) What does the poet think about the fire that burns in the eyes of the tiger? ("The Tyger') 

(iv) What type of life did the village forefathers lead when they were alive? ('Elegy Written in a County Churchyard') 

(v) Who is the silent listener in Browning's 'My Last Duchess'? 

(vi) What is the effect of the moon shining in the sky ? ('To Marguerite') 

(vii) Write a short note on the theme of the poem 'The Darkling Thrush'. 5x3=15

3. Answer any three of the following questions in about 100-120 words each : 

(i) Draw a character sketch of Ulysses in your own words. 

(ii) Write a detailed note on Keats' sensuousness on the basis of your study of 'Ode to a Nightingale'. 

(iii) What type of beauty does the poet wish for his daughter in 'A Prayer for My Daughter’? 

(iv) How does the poet hail the tiger as a wonderful creation of God in "The Tyger"? 

(v) Give a central idea of the poem 'Journey of the Magi'. 3x5=15 


4. Write a precis of the following passage and give a suitable title: English education and English language have done immense goods to India in spite of their glaring drawbacks. The notions of democracy and self-government are the born of English education. Those who fought and died for mother India's freedom were nursed in the cradle of English thought and culture. The West has made contribution to the East. The history of Europe has fired the hearts of our leaders. Our struggle for freedom has been inspired by the struggles for freedom in England, America and France. If our leaders were ignorant of English and if they had not studied this language, how could they have been inspired by these heroic struggles for freedom in other lands? English, therefore, did us great good in the past and if properly studied will do immense good in future.

English is spoken throughout the world. For international contact, for our commerce and trade, for the development of our practical ideas, for the scientific studies, English is indispensable. English is very rich in literature and our own literature has been made richer by this foreign language. It will really be a fatal day if we altogether forget Shakespeare, Milton, Keats and Shaw. 10

5. Identify the figure of speech in the following sentences (Epithet, Metonymy, Oxymoron, Epigram): 

(i) England has decided to keep check on immigration. 

(ii) A multi-coloured rainbow appeared in the sky.

(iii) Live simply so that others may simply live. 

(iv) There was a deafening silence in the room. 

(v) Child is the father of man.

(vi) It was an open secret that the company had used a paid volunteer.

(vii) Alexander, the great. 

(viii) They were using liquid gas technology.

(ix) Let me give you a hand. 

(x) It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness. 10 

6. Do as directed : 

(A) Choose the correct meaning of any five of the following words:

(i) Aversion (hatred, love, relish, enemy)

(ii) Betray (give, take, deceive, help) 

(iii) Foresight (anticipation, witty, eyesight, wisdom) 

(iv) Lament (complaint, love, rejoice, celebrate) 

(v) Significant (useless, important, work, harmful)

(vi) Platonic (sexual, physical, romantic, spiritual) 

(vii) Obstacle (help, hurdle, advantage, gulf)

7. Complete any five of the following incomplete: 

(i) It is better to die………………..

(ii) Great talkers are never………………….

(iii) All that glitters ............ 

(iv) He who laughs last ...... 

(v) All religions teach that God .... 

(vi) Prevention is better ..................

(vii) He is not only ignorant ........ 5

8. Give one word for any five of the following:

(i) One who walks in sleep 

(ii) An official numbering of the population 

(iii) One who devotes his service or wealth for the love of mankind 

(iv) One who shoots with bows and arrows 

(v) Study of speech sounds and its production 

(vi) Legal dissolution of marriage (vii) Government by the nobility.

9. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

According to some estimates, if we could compile the amount of food, land, water, and energy used to raise the 10 billion animals slaughtered each year for meat, we could use those resources to feed every single starving person on earth. The majority of these resources are depleted by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). CAFOs are factory farms that mass-produce livestock harming animals, the environment, and humans in the process. It is true that these farming methods provide an abundant source of food and employ thousands of workers across the country. However, CAFOs should be placed under more stringent restrictions because of their unfair treatment of animals and the harm they do to both the environment and humans, animal rights. Factory farms raise livestock indoors, as opposed to allowing the animals to graze in fields and pastures. The farmers favour this overcrowded environment because it maximizes profits. Providing less space for the animals costs less money; filling pens to their maximum capacity ensures that no space is wasted. Consequently, animal pens are often so small that larger animals cannot lie down or turn around. In some cases, these small cages are beneficial for more than just maximizing capacity: calves, for example, do not gain muscle mass in this environment. This keeps their meat more tender, which makes it more attractive to consumers.

Livestock in CAFOs are often found living in their own urine and feces, stimulating the spread of diseases such as avian flu, foot and mouth disease, and mad cow disease-among other animals on the farm. In order to combat this, farmers must give the animals antibiotics. In many cases, however, antibiotics are used for disease prevention instead of treatment. In addition to being used to combat the spread of disease, antibiotics are also commonly used to encourage faster growth in livestock. This overuse increases the risk of livestock developing immunity to antibiotics, ironically making animals even more susceptible to disease. After being digested, these antibiotics are released back into the environment in the form of milk, meat, and waste, which can affect the people who eat these products or the environment that absorbs them.

CAFOs also negatively impact the environment in the form of air and water pollution. Factory farms contribute to air pollution issues in the United States through the release of toxic gases and vapors and by burning fossil fuels to run farm machinery. These farms also have notable consequences for the environment in terms of water pollution. One characteristic of CAFOs that creates water pollution is the presence of a lagoon. Lagoons are artificial storage basins where animal excrement is temporarily contained; periodically, farmers flush this waste into ditches or nearby bodies of water. This waste combines with runoff from fertilized fields to pollute the water sources surrounding CAFOs. It adds excess nutrients, pathogens, veterinary pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and excreted hormones to the water sources. Such pollutants not only affect aquatic life, but can lead to severe impacts on human health.

Another negative environmental impact of factory farms is resource depletion. Factory farming uses more land than any other agricultural or industrial enterprise in the country. CAFOs consume a great deal of resources in terms of grain, energy, and land. There are far more efficient ways of using these resources to feed people. For example, it has been estimated that the grain used to feed livestock in the United States alone could feed up to 800 million people in one year. By contrast, the production of livestock in CAFOs is a wasteful use of energy. While both chicken meat and soybeans are good sources of protein, producing equivalent amounts of protein from chicken meat and soybeans does not require equivalent amounts of energy: chicken meat production consumes 14 times more energy than soybean production. Grain and energy supplies should be used more efficiently to produce food sources other than livestock.

In order to combat the unfair treatment of animals and the risks to environmental and human health, CAFOs should be placed under stricter guidelines. One such regulation would force factory farms to adhere to air and water quality protection standards from which they have previously been exempted like those set forth by the Clean Water Act. Enforcing these standards would lead to banning environmental hazards such as waste lagoons, which in turn would reduce environmental pollution and human health liabilities.

Some have suggested that due to these environmental and human health concerns, factory farms should be banned outright. Advocates for CAFOs, however, argue that factory farming allows for lower production costs that translate into lower food prices for consumers. Organic and free-range products, they argue, do not allow for the large-scale production of livestock; prices for meat, eggs, and dairy would increase should the country shift towards organic products. Although this would be an inconvenience to consumers, a price increase would encourage people to eat a diet of less meat. This cultural change would assist in solving the broader resource crisis as fewer grain, energy, and land resources would be needed to support smaller-scale production. Better treatment of animals and more responsible environmental practices would protect humans more from infectious diseases and the effects of air and water pollution-a benefit everyone should embrace. 

Now, answer the following questions: 

(i) What is the primary purpose of the passage ? 

(ii) Why do animals raised on CAFOs live indoors ?

(iii) Why does the author admit the fact that meat from animals raised on factory farms is cheaper than organic or free-range meat ?

(iv) What suggestions does the author give to combat the unfair treatment of animals and the risk to environmental and human health?

(v) As used in the final paragraph, which is the best synonym for 'advocates': 

critics, founders, censors, followers.  10


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